by Evangelos Giakoumatos

Diploma Thesis, July 2002


The work investigates the response of elbows under in-plane bending and pressure, through nonlinear finite element tools, supported by experimental results from real-scale tests. The finite element analysis is mainly based on a nonlinear three-node "tube element", capable of describing elbow deformation in a rigorous manner, considering geometric and material nonlinearities. Furthermore, a nonlinear shell element from a general-purpose finite element program is employed in some special cases. Numerical results are compared with experimental data from steel elbow specimens. The comparison allows the investigation of important issues regarding deformation and ultimate capacity of elbows, with emphasis on relatively thin-walled elbows. The results demonstrate the effects of pressure and the influence of straight pipe segments. Finally, using the numerical tools, failure of elbows under bending moments is examined (cross-sectional flattening or local buckling), and reference to experimental observations is made.


Finite Element2 clip image002 Finite Element2 clip image004

Buckled shape of elbow specimen around the middle- cross-section; experiment (left and analysis with shell elements (right).


Spyros A. Karamanos, PhD

Department of Mechanical Engineering | University of Thessaly | Pedion Areos, Volos 38334, Greece
Phone: +30 - 24210 74086, 74360 | Fax : +30 - 24210 74360 | Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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